The majority of Indonesia's railways is located
on Java, used for both passenger and freight transport. There are three
noncontinuous railway networks in Sumatra (Aceh and North
Sumatra; West Sumatra; South Sumatra and Lampung) with two
new networks is being developed in Kalimantan and Sulawesi.
Urban railway exist in form of commuter
rail in Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya. New mass rapid
transit and light rail transit system are currently under construction
in Jakarta and Palembang.
Indonesia's rail gauge is 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in),
although 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
and 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in)
lines previously existed. Newer constructions in Aceh and Sulawesi are using
the 1,435 mm gauge. Most of the Jakarta metropolitan area is
electrified at 1500 V DC overhead.
Indonesia's railways are operated by
the state-owned PT Kereta Api and its Jakartan subsidiary,
the PT KAI Commuter Jabodetabek. The infrastructure is state-owned, and
companies pay a fee for using the railways.
Various narrow gauge industrial
tramways operate in Java and Sumatra, serving the sugarcane and oil
government has set a target of adding 3,258 km to the existing railway network
(2,159 km intercity and 1,099 km urban), which will require IDR 283trn (US$
23.9bn) of investment between 2015 and 2019. In addition, a share of the IDR
115trn (US$ 9.7bn) allocated for Urban Transport is aimed at constructing Mass
Rapid Transit (MRT) in six metropolitan cities and 17 large cities across
Indonesia. Forecasted only US$ 18.3bn of investment for rail and rail MRT
The first railway line in Indonesia
opened in 1867. The railways were gradually expanded by both the state and
The Japanese occupation and
the Indonesian War of Independence left Indonesia's railways in a
poor condition. A batch of 100 steam locomotives were ordered in 1950, and dieselisation started
in 1953. By the 1980s most mainline services had been dieselised. Electric
multiple units were obtained from Japan beginning in the 1970s,
replacing 60-year-old electric locomotives.
Since the independence era, all
mainline railways in Indonesia have been managed by the state. The owners of
the private railway were compensated first, but the system was fully
nationalised in 1971.
Construction of new railway lines has
been scarce, and most new construction is concentrated on double- and
quad-tracking of existing railway lines. Most of the former tramway lines have
been closed, reducing the mileage from about 7000 km to only 3000 km.
Railways on Java :- The first
railways in Indonesia were built on the island of Java, using 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
gauge. During the Japanese occupation, they were converted to 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
gauge. At its greatest extent, the Javanese network had a length of 4,807
kilometres (2,987 mi), connecting most parts of the island.
- Jakarta Kota-Anyer Kidul
- Duri-Tangerang railway
- Jakarta Kota-Manggarai
- Jatinegara-Manggarai railway
- Cepu Forest Railway
Railways on Sumatra :-
In Sumatra as of 2013, there are 1,869
kilometres of track, of which 1,348 km are operational. Several unconnected
railway networks were built in the time of the Dutch East Indies:
Aceh-Lhokseumawe-Besitang-Medan-Tebingtinggi-Pematang Siantar-Rantau Prapat in
northern Sumatra (the Banda Aceh-Besitang section was closed in 1971, but is
being rebuilt, as of 2011)
- Padang-Solok-Bukittinggi in West
Lampung-Palembang-Lahat-Lubuk Linggau in southern Sumatra.